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A review: Effectiveness of packaging materials treated with insecticide and plant extract against Tribolium castaneum and Trogoderma granarium


The International Journal of Global Sciences (TIJOGS)

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Yasir Ishfaq1, Muhammad Waqas1, Sumer Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Awais1, Jamil Ijaz1, Muhammad Umair Gulzar1, Muhammad Ishtiaq Sarwar1

*Corresponding author: sumerzulfiqar77@gmail.com


Submitted Accepted Published
Nov 16,2018 Jan 11,2019 Feb 05,2019

2019 / Vol: 2 / Issue: 1


Abstract


The quantitative and qualitative losses in all commodities occurred due to stored product insect pests. Insects are responsible for causing a lot of damage to stored products and stored grains, they cause up to 5-10% damage in stored products of temperate zone and about 20-30% damage in tropical zone. These insects are very significant in causing post-harvest losses, which leads up to 36%. These insects also act as a vector of various diseases that are dangerous for the health of animals and human beings. In world annually about 25% losses has been observed during post-harvest process which ranges from 600-800 million tons of cereals. There are 24% of the reduction reported in grains storage due to attack of insect pest, which estimated a cost of .8 billion USD. In the developing countries there are 1 to 5% more post-harvest losses as compared to developed country, but it depends on the product or crop. Insects of stored grains caused losses including: reduced nutritional value; damage seed embryo; poor germination of seed; weight loss of grains; changes of flavor and mould formation. Throughout the world the most injurious and damaging pests of stored products are Tribolium castaneum and Trogoderma granarium. T. castaneum (Herbst) red flour beetle is one of the most important pest of stored grain. Grain and its quality is greatly affected by the attack of T. granarium. Pest control in stored products is a very major problem in developing countries. During the storage of wheat T. granarium (Everts) is responsible for causing both quantitative and qualitative losses. T. granarium larvae stage is the most damaging stage whereas the adult stage of T. granarium is unable to cause damage. The product packaging is the final step of the protection against insect infestation by the processors. Around the globe, especially in developing countries, there is no need to use bulk bins or elevator silos, bags can also be used to stored grains. Instead of using direct treatment of grains the approach of using insecticide-treated bags greatly capturing the interest of stakeholders. To prevent from infestations in stored product of grains, there is used to develop alter-native strategies such as botanicals. These are ecofriendly, pest specific, nontoxic to humans, non-phytotoxic, less pesticide resistance and locally available. For the storage of cereals differentkinds of packaging material like cloth bags, PICS bags polyethylene, polypropylene and jute bags are used. PICS bags are very important because they have low cost of input and also prevent the penetration of insects due to its hard surface. To evaluate the resistant packaging material against different insects of stored product keeping in view packaging type, thickness or insecticide-included bags for safety of stored-product. Application of repellents is very important because it needs a lot of research work. The efficacy of repellents is still questionable because they can penetrate packaging surface and damage food stuffs and only few chemicals are approved by EPA or FDA.

Key words: Packaging materials, insecticide, plant extract, Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium



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