Updates
  • The International Journal of Biological Research (TIJOBR)- Published Quarterly
  • The International Journal of Global Sciences (TIJOGS) -Published Quarterly

Catalysis for biodiesel production through alkali metals, alkaline metal and transition metal oxides


The International Journal of Global Sciences (TIJOGS)

PDF

Faheem Abbas1, Muhammad Usman Tahir1*, Maria Khalid1, Muhammad Saqlain Awais1

Ali Raza Ayub1, Muhammad Bilal Khan1

1Department of chemistry, university of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: usmantahir4824@gmail.com
Submitted Accepted Published
Oct 22,2019 Dec 20,2019 Nov 24,2019

2019 / Vol: 2 / Issue: 4


Abstract


An ever-increasing demand of energy enforced the researchers to investigate the renewable energy resources other than fossil fuels. Biodiesel lessens net carbon dioxide emissions up to 78%with reference to conventional fuel. In present study Pongamia Pinnata seeds as a feedstock were collected from coal area of Faisalabad and roadside of Okara, Pakistan. Homogeneous basic, heterogeneous basic and heterogeneous acidic catalyst were selected such as KOH, MGO, ZNO, alcohol to oil molar ratio for the maximum production like oil/catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio for the maximum production of biodiesel at reduced cost. Pongamia Pinnata seed oil was extracted from screw press machine, filtered by vacuum filtration, fractional distillation and then Trans esterified to biodiesel. The quality of produced biodiesel tested using various standards assays ASTM, D6751, ENN14214 to determined saponification value, iodine value, pour point and density. We used gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis for the determination of produced biodiesel composition. The obtained results tested using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test HSD test.

Key words: Biodiesel production, alkali metals, alkaline metal, transition metal oxides


Reference


  1. Arzamendi, G., et al. (2008). "Alkaline and alkaline-earth metals compounds as catalysts for the methanolysis of sunflower oil." Catalysis Today 133: 305-313.
  2. Atabani, A. E., et al. (2012). "A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(4): 2070-2093.
  3. Atadashi, I., et al. (2012). "The effects of water on biodiesel production and refining technologies: A review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(5): 3456-3470.
  4. Bhatti, H. N., et al. (2008). "Acid and base catalyzed transesterification of animal fats to biodiesel." Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE) 27(4): 41-48.
  5. Bozbas, K. (2008). "Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(2): 542-552.
  6. Demirbas, A. (2007). "Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel." Energy policy 35(9): 4661-4670.
  7. Dossin, T. F., et al. (2006). "Simulation of heterogeneously MgO-catalyzed transesterification for fine-chemical and biodiesel industrial production." Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 67(1-2): 136-148.
  8. Dzida, M. and P. Prusakiewicz (2008). "The effect of temperature and pressure on the physicochemical properties of petroleum diesel oil and biodiesel fuel." Fuel 87(10-11): 1941-1948.
  9. Firoz, S. (2017). "A review: advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel." International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 4(11).
  10. Huang, D., et al. (2012). "Biodiesel: an alternative to conventional fuel." Energy Procedia 16: 1874-1885.
  11. Jairurob, P., et al. (2013). "Reactive extraction of after-stripping sterilized palm fruit to biodiesel." Fuel 107: 282-289.
  12. Knothe, G. (2010). "Biodiesel and renewable diesel: a comparison." Progress in energy and combustion science 36(3): 364-373.
  13. Li, S., et al. (2009). "Biodiesel production from Eruca Sativa Gars vegetable oil and motor, emissions properties." Renewable Energy 34(7): 1871-1876.
  14. Mohadesi, M., et al. (2014). "Biodiesel production using alkali earth metal oxides catalysts synthesized by sol-gel method." Biofuel Research Journal 1(1): 30-33.
  15. Moser, B. R. (2009). "Biodiesel production, properties, and feedstocks." In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 45(3): 229-266.
  16. Murugesan, A., et al. (2009). "Production and analysis of bio-diesel from non-edible oils—a review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(4): 825-834.
  17. Sagar, A. D. (2005). "Alleviating energy poverty for the world's poor." Energy policy 33(11): 1367-1372.
  18. Vlahinić-Dizdarević, N. and S. Žiković (2010). "The role of energy in economic growth: the case of Croatia." Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci: časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu 28(1): 35-60.
  19. Zabeti, M., et al. (2009). "Activity of solid catalysts for biodiesel production: a review." Fuel Processing Technology 90(6): 770-777.
  20. Zanganeh, K. E. and A. Shafeen (2007). "A novel process integration, optimization and design approach for large-scale implementation of oxy-fired coal power plants with CO2 capture." International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 1(1): 47-54.
  21. Zhen, L. and Y. Zhong-Wei (2009). "Homogenized daily mean/maximum/minimum temperature series for China from 1960-2008." Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters 2(4): 237-243.

© Copy Rights
By Authors and RnD Journals.
http://rndjournals.com