• The International Journal of Biological Research (TIJOBR)- Published Quarterly
  • The International Journal of Global Sciences (TIJOGS) -Published Quarterly

Effects of Abiotic Stresses on Rice Plant

The International Journal of Biological Research (TIJOBR)


Rabail Afzal1*, Rabia Yasin2, Ammara Saeed2, Rida Nawaz2,

Muhammad Mubashar Zafar3

National Key Lab of Crop Genetics Improvements, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

2 Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

3 State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Key Laboratory of Biological and Genetic Breeding of Cotton, 

The Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, 

Anyang, 455000, Henan, China.

*Corresponding Authors emails: rabail.afzal.10@gmail.comm.mubasharzafar@gmail.com 

Submitted Accepted Published
Aug 02,2019 Oct 03,2019 Oct 07,2019

2019 / Vol: 2 / Issue: 3


Rice is a major staple food after wheat, which is consumed globally on daily basis. But due to drastic climatic variation, its production severely affected by the abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, nutrient deficiency, submergence, temperature fluctuation (both high and low) and heavy metal stress. Although plants have well developed defensive mechanism of stress tolerance, still they are badly affected. According to estimation about 20% irrigated land is salt affected. Rice is tolerant to salt stress but their yield losses are more in low lands than upper land, mainly due to ionic imbalance and osmotic stress. It is semi aquatic but prolong submergence have lethal effect on plant development and yield. Temperature is another major limitation in rice production, 1% increase in temperature cause 10% reduction in yield under dry season. Globally drought reduces 9-10% national cereal production and cause 20% yield reduction at flowering and 28% at flowering stage. Flowering stage is more prone to high temperature stress. Precipitation cause 5.71- 15.26% reduction in rice production. Plant uptake heavy metals and lead to severe health hazard because they are become the part of the food chain. 53 heavy metals are reported in plants with no prescribed essential role in plant body. These stresses result in nutritional disorder, impoverished emergence, delay flowering, faulty panicle development, infertility, pollen sterility, reduce photosynthesis, complete grain loss ultimately results in severe yield loss. Different management approaches have been exploited to ameliorate the damaging effect of the abiotic stresses on crop production. Genomic approaches are employed to accelerate the breeding potential to develop resistant cultivars. Besides these molecular approaches, physiological, biochemical and agronomic techniques are viable approaches to develop stress tolerate rice to reinvigorate production without economic loss.

Key words:

Rice, abiotic stress, consequences, management approaches.


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