• The International Journal of Biological Research (TIJOBR)- Published Quarterly
  • The International Journal of Global Sciences (TIJOGS) -Published Quarterly

Essential Oils of Spice Plants Prevent DNA Damage

The International Journal of Biological Research (TIJOBR)


*Ghulam Zahara Jahangir1, Durre Shahwar2Madeha Sadiq, Idrees Ahmad Nasir3, Habiba 

Khalil4, Muhammad Iqbal1

Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab,Lahore-53700, Pakistan.

Department of Chemistry, GC University, Lahore.

National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab,Lahore-53700, Pakistan.

4 Department of Zoology, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan.

*For correspondence: Email zahra_jahangir@yahoo.com

Submitted Accepted Published
Sep 22,2019 Dec 10,2019 Jan 13,2020

2020 / Vol: 3 / Issue: 2


Essential oils of six spice plants namely Piper nigrum, Nigella sativa, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cuminum cyminum and Ptychotis ajowan were evaluated for their protective properties against chemical mutagen (hydrogen peroxide). The experiments were performed on fresh human cheek cells, in vitro, using single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay technique. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used in concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 900 µM respectively to get decipherable damage in DNA of cheek cells. Conspicuous DNA damage (comparatively larger tail lengths) was observed in human cheek cells on application of H2O2 (350 µM). The effectiveness of essential oil against H2O2 (350 µM ) was tested by evaluating the inhibitory effect of essential oils against chemical mutagen on human cheek cells . All the six essential oils were found evenly effective in shielding the DNA damage caused by H2O(350 µM). Furthermore the comet assay technique was found to be sternly potent contrivance to appraise the DNA damage of individual cells. 


Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis/Comet Assay, Anti mutagenic Effect, DNA Damage, Cheek Cells, Essential Oils, Hydrogen Peroxide. 


1)Carlsen MH, Halvorsen BL, Holte K, Bohn SK, Dragland S, Sampson L (2010). The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutrition Journal. 9(3): 1-11.

2)Hamssa RE, Idaomar M, Moraga AA, Serrano AM (2003). Anti mutagenic properties of bell and black peppers. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 41: 41-47.

3)Jahangir T, Safhi MM, Alam F. (2014). Pomegranate juice attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rat model of experiment. Adv. Life Sci. 2(1). pp: 5-9. 

4)Javed S, Ali M, Ali F, Anwar SS, Wajid N (2015). Status of oxidative stress in breast cancer patients in Pakistani population. Adv. Life Sci. 2(3). pp: 115-118. 

5)Jayakumar R, Kanthimathi (2012). Dietary spices protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and inhibit nicotine-induced cancer cell migration. Food Chemistry. 134: 1580-1584.

6)Jayaprakasha GK, Negi PS, Jena BS, Rao LJM (2007). Antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit extracts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 20: 330–336.

  1. Larson RA (1997). Naturally Occurring Antioxidants; CRC Press LLC, Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, FL, USA.

8) Li YJ, Perkins AL, Su Y, Ma Y, Colson L, Horne DA, Chen Y (2012). Gold nanoparticles as a platform for creating a multivalent poly-SUMO chain inhibitor that also augments ionizing radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109(11): 4092-4097.

  1. Mimica-Dukić N, Dušan Bugarin D, Grbović S, Mitić-Ćulafić D, Vuković-Gačić B, Orčić D, Jovin E, Couladis M (2010). Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. as a Potential Antioxidant and Anti mutagenic Agents. Molecules. 15: 2759-2770.

10)   Miranda-Vilela AL, Alves PCZ, Akimoto AK, Lordelo GS, Goncalves CA, Grisolia CK, Klautau-Guimaraes MN (2010). Gene polymorphism against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in leukocytes of healthy humans through comet assay: a quasi-experimental study. Environmental Health. 9: 

11) Olinski R, Gackowski D, Foksinski M, Rozalski R, Roszkowski K, Jaruga P (2002). Oxidative DNA damage: assessment of the role in carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 33: 192-200.

12)   Parveen N, Shadab GGHA (2012). Ameliorating Action of Nigella Sativa Seed Extract against the Geno-toxic Effect of Chlorambucil in Human Lymphocyte Cultures. Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine. 4: 261-266.

13)   Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Salvatore S, Del Rio D, Bianchi M, Brighenti F (2006). Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 50(11): 1030−1038.

14)   Shahwar D, Raza MA, Bukhari S, Bukhari G (2012). Ferric reducing antioxidant power of essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus and Curcuma species. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. S1633-S1636

15)   Szeto YT, Benzie IFF, Collins AR, Choi SW, Cheng CY, Yow CMN, Tse MMY (2005). A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human bio monitoring and nutritional studies. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 578 (1-2): 371-381.

  1. Zaika E, Wei JYin DAndl CMoll UEl-Rifai WZaika AI (2011). p73 Protein Regulates DNA Damage Repair. FASEB J. 25: 4406-4414.
  2. ITRC: THE SCGE/ COMET ASSAY PROTOCOL (http://www.cometassayindia.org/Protocol%20for%20Comet%20Assay.PDF)

© Copy Rights
By Authors and RnD Journals.