Evaluation of rhizobial isolate inoculants for their effectiveness for the growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.) under salinity stress
The International Journal of Biological Research (TIJOBR)
M. Asim Raza1, Zunaira Anwar2, Fatima Farooq2, Nimra Asghar2, Maryam Noor2, Umar Muaz3, Muhammad Shahzad3, Hina Firdous3
1Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
2Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
*Corresponding author’s email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Jul 09,2019||Oct 11,2019||Nov 04,2019|
2019 / Vol: 2 / Issue: 4
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a valuable and important crop throughout the world. It is used as food purpose for humans, feed for animals and raw material for agricultural industries. There are some serious problems that reduce the yield of the crops which include salinity, water logging and drought. Maize is very sensitive to salinity. Rhizobia are efficient to reduce the salinity effect by various mechanisms of actions. A growth room trial was conducted to check their efficiency for growth promotion of maize in controlled environment. Nodulation data of the isolates on the Lucerne crop has been collected which showed a significant increase in nodulation by rhizobial inoculation as compared to un-inoculated control. Glass jar trial for the evaluation of these strains for growth promotion of maize crop at different salinity levels (0, 6 and 8 dS m-1) was conducted in growth room of Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, ISES, UAF under control conditions. Data regarding growth parameters were collected after six weeks of sowing. Results showed a significant increase in plant height, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight and root length by 22.54%, 52.5%, 48.57% and 45.64% respectively as compare to (un-inoculated) control. Hence, the above-mentioned results showed that growth promotion of maize can be significantly increased by the inoculation with Rhizobium strains under salt stress.
Key words: Maize, salinity, rhizobial isolate
- Ahemad, M. and M.S. Khan. 2009. Toxicity assessment of herbicides quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop towards Rhizobium pea symbiosis. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 82: 761-766.
- Ahmad, M., H. A. Alias, R. Bukhsh, A. Ahmad, U. Malik, S. Hussain and M. Ishaque. 2010. Profitability of three maize hybrids as influenced by varying plant density and potassium application. J. Anim Plant Sci. 21: 42-47.
- Alikhani, H. A., N. Saleh-Rastin and H. Antoun. 2006. Phosphate solubilisation activity of rhizobia native to Iranian soils. Plant Soil 287: 35–41.
- Anonymous, 2002. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Live Stock, Economic Wing, Islamabad. pp: 83-84.
- Berg, G. 2009. Plant microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appli. Micro. Biotech. 84:11-18.
- Chedlia, B.A., B.R. Bechi and M. Boukhris. 2007. Effect of water deficit on olive trees cv. Chemlali under field conditions in arid region in Tunisia. Sci. Hort. 113: 267-277.
- Choudhary, O.P. A.S. Josan, M.S. Bajwa and L. Kapur. 2004. Effect of sustained sodic and saline-sodic irrigation and application of gypsum and farmyard manure on yield and quality of sugarcane under semi-arid conditions. Field Crops Res. 87: 103-116.
- Diacono, M., and F. Montemurro. 2010. Long term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility: A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 30: 401-422.
- Fahad, S., S. Hussain, S. Saud, S. Hassan, H. Muhammad, D. Shan, C. Chen, C. Wu, D. Xiong, S. B. Khan, A. Jan, K. Cui and J. Huang. 2014. Consequences of narrow crop row spacing and delayed Echinochloa colona and Trianthema portulacastrum emergence for weed growth and crop yield loss in maize. Weed Res. 10: 475-483.
- Hussein, M.M., Balbaa, L.K. and Gaballah, M.S., 2007. Salicylic acid and salinity effects on growth of maize plants. Res. J. Agric. and Biol. Sci.3: 321-328.
- Misra, A.N., A.K. Biswal and M. Misra. 2002. Physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of water stress responses in plants and the biotechnological applications. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 72: 115-134.
- Ouda, S.A.E., S.G. Mohammed and F.A. Khalil. 2008. Modeling the effect of different stress conditions on maize productivity using yield-stress model. Int. J. Natural. Eng. Sci. 2: 57-62.
- Rogers, M., A.D. Craig, R. Munnus, T.D. Clomer, P.G.H. Nichols, C.V. Malcolm, E.G. Barret Leonard, A.J. Brown, W.S. Semple, P.M. Evans, K. Cowley, S.J. Hughes, R. Snowball, S.J. Bennett, G.C.Sweeney, B.S. Dear and M.A. Ewing. 2005. The potential for developing fodder plants for the salt-affected areas of southern and eastern Australia: an overview. Aust. J. exp. Agric. 45: 301-329.
- Rosas-Castor, J.M., J.L. Guzman-Mar, A. Hernandez-Ramirez, M.T. Garza-Gonzalez and L.Hinojosa-Reyes. 2014. Arsenic accumulation in maize crop (Zea mays L): a review. Sci. Total Environ. 489: 176-187.
- Scotti, R.M., G. Bonanomi, R. Scelza, A. Zonia and M.A. Rao. 2015. Organic amendments as sustainable tool to recovery fertility in intensive agricultural systems. J. Soil Sci. Plant. Nutri. 15: 333-352.
- Spaepen, S., F. Das, E. Luyten, J. Michiels, J. Vanderleyden. 2009. Indole-3-acetic acid-regulated genes in Rhizobium metliloti CNPAF512. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 291: 195-200.
- Tejada, M., C. Garcia, J. L. Gonzalez and M. T. Hernandez. 2006. Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation: Influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 38: 1413-1421.
- Wani, P.A. M.S. Khan, A. Zaidi. 2007. Effect of metal tolerant plant growth promoting Bradyrhizobium sp. on growth, symbiosis, seed yield and metal uptake by green gram plants. J. Chemosphere. 70: 36-45.